In–Flight Icing

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Inflight icing is both an aviation safety and efficiency issue. Icing is a cause or factor in numerous fatal aircraft accidents. Yet, current official forecasts typically cover more space and time than needed and thus deny use of aircraft or airspace unnecessarily. Avoidance of icing conditions would be possible with improved operationally–available, high–resolution, accurate diagnoses and forecasts.

Our goal is a gridded depiction of inflight including probability, expected severity and supercooled large drop areas. The Current Icing Product (CIP) combines model output with real–time sensor data to provide a diagnosis of icing conditions across the CONUS. The Forecast Icing Product (FIP) uses model surrogates to provide a forecast up to 12 h. CIP and FIP resolution is currently 1 h/20 km/1000 ft, but future versions will offer higher resolution. Collaboration with the aviation community is needed to establish the scales required for useful and accurate icing hazard depiction, and for estimation of expected icing severity.

Components of the integrated algorithms are developed and evaluated prior to their inclusion. Verification is an important part of the development process, and is accomplished using voice pilot reports and data from research aircraft.

We are working with the Joint Planning and Development Office of the Next–Generation Air Transportation System, both to guide forecast and observational requirements, and to identify potential operational impacts and training/education needs for the future.

Project Sponsor:


FAA Aviation Weather Research Program

In-Flight Icing Product Development Team

ProjectThe FAA's Aviation Weather Research Program (AWRP) directs research and development activities for 11 Research Teams. The roles of the InFlight Icing Product Development Team (IFI PDT) are to provide guidance to the FAA on in flight icing, prepare annual plans for research, monitor progress on the plan and provide quarterly reports to the AWRP Management Team, provide regular briefings to the AWRP, and coordinate FAA sponsored research activities with those of other organizations.
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Advanced Satellite Aviation Weather Products (ASAP) Program

ProjectThe goal of the Advanced Satellite Aviation Weather Program is to increase and optimize the usage of satellite data sets within the existing FAA PDT structure and to transfer advanced satellite expertise to the PDTs. ASAP enables collaboration between NASA and the FAA AWRP utilizing the University of Wisconsin Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (UW–CIMSS) and the AWRP PDTs.
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High Ice Water Content (HIWC) Research

The aviation sector has compiled information on over one hundred engine weather–related powerloss events, and concluded that these events are due to flight through areas of high Ice Water Content (IWC) associated with deep convective clouds.
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NASA Icing Remote Sensing System (NIRSS)

ProjectNIRSS was envisioned by Andrew Reehorst (NASA Glenn Research Center -Icing Branch) as a low–cost, simple, portable, and extensible real–time detection system of flight icing conditions in a local area.
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Icing Hazard Index

The FAA NEXRAD Program office has expressed a desire for an Icing Hazard Level (IHL) product, based upon the dual–polarization upgrade planned for the NEXRAD facilities. This is part of an overall effort to identify, develop and deploy algorithms identifying hazardous weather to aviation.
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CIP and FIP (Current and Forecast Icing Products)

The Current and Forecast Icing Products (CIP/FIP) provide 4D analyses of the icing environment. Input from weather sensors is combined with numerical weather prediction model output to produce this automatically–generated weather product. They are updated hourly to provide current information on icing severity, its probability of encounter, and a potential for SLD (supercooled large drop) icing. The resolution is 20–km horizontally and 1000 ft vertically. FIP includes 1,2,3,6,9 and 12–h forecasts. The products are available in gridded and graphical formats on the operational and experimental ADDS sites (www.aviationweather.gov and weather.aero).

CIP combines numerical weather prediction model output with surface weather observations, satellite imagery, NEXRAD radar information, lightning data and pilot reports of icing and combines the information using fuzzy logic techniques to produce a final output of icing potential. FIP, of course, uses only model input, and Alaska versions of both algorithms (CIP–AK and FIP–AK) are being developed. Additional capabilities of satellites, radars and in situ sensors are being examined for their suitability for CIP within the IFIPDT and by leveraging funding from NASA's Advanced Satellite Aviation–weather Program (ASAP), NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System (NIRSS) development, and the Icing Hazard Level project from the FAA Nexrad Program Office. The research aspect of the IFIPDT tasking is an essential component for continued improvements in in–flight icing diagnosis and forecasting.

Those interested in learning more details of the science used to create CIP are invited to read the following paper.

View Current Icing Product (CIP)
View Forecast Icing Product (FIP) and Current/Forecast Alaska Icing Product (CIP/FIPAK)

News Archives

November 30, 2006
Steering Clear of Icy Skies: Enhanced Product Helps Guide Aircraft away from Hazardous Icing Conditions

March 09, 2004
New Radar System May Help Airplanes Avoid In-Flight Icing

March 26, 2002
Airlines Get New Tools to Avoid In-Flight Icing

COMET Icing Modules

Forecasting Aviation icing: Icing Type and Severity
Icing Assessment Using Soundings and Wind Profiles
Icing Assessment Using Observations and Pilot Reports

Products

Current and Forecast Icing Products (CONUS)
CIP-Sev
CIP and FIP-AK

Presentations

(coming soon)

Links

Next Generation Air Transportation System Joint Planning and Development Office
NASA Glenn Research Center Icing Branch
NASA Langley Satellite Cloud Products
FAA Aviation Weather Research Program (AWRP)

Technical Papers and Reports

MWISP Icing List | last updated 070806 | WISP/FAA Icing  or ASAP Articles

Bernstein, B.C., F. McDonough, M.K. Politovich, B.G. Brown, T.P. Ratvasky, D.R. Miller, C.A. Wolff and G. Cunning, 2005: Current Icing Potential: Algorithm Description and Comparison with Aircraft Observations. J. Appl. Meteor., 44, No. 7 (July), 969-986.

Bernstein, B.C., F. McDonough, C.A. Wolff, M.K. Politovich, R.M. Rasmussen and S.G. Cober, 2004: Diagnosis of supercooled large drop conditions using cloud water content and drop concentration.   Paper 8.6, 11th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Hyannis, 4-8 Oct. Available on cd..

Bernstein, B.C. and Timothy L. Schneider, 2004:  Two Perspectives on a Colorado Icing Event: GRIDS and CIP. Paper P6.1, 11th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Hyannis, 4-8 Oct. Available on cd.

Bernstein, B., 2003: An inferred climatology of supercooled large droplet icing conditions for north America. AIAA Paper 2003-0563, 41st AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, Reno, Jan. 6-9, 11 pp.  

Bernstein, B.C. and  F. McDonough, 2002:  An inferred icing climatology – Part II: Applying a version of IIDA to 14 years of coincindent soundings and surface observations. Preprints, 9th AMS Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology,   13-16 May, Portland, OR.,  J21 – J24.

Bernstein, B.C., 2000: Regional and local influences on freezing drizzle, freezing rain, and ice pellet events.  Wea. Forecasting, 15, 485-508.

Bernstein, B.C. and F. McDonough, 2000: Environments associated with large droplet, small droplet, mixed-phase icing, and glaciated conditions aloft. Preprints, 9th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, 11-15 Sept., Orlando, 239 – 244.

Bernstein, B.C., F. McDonough, M.K. Politovich and B. Brown, 2000: A research aircraft verification of the integrated icing diagnostic algorithm (IIDA). Preprints, 9th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, 11-15 Sept., Orlando, 280 – 285.

Bernstein, B.C, T. P. Ratvasky., D. Miller, and F. McDonough, 1999: Freezing rain as an in-flight icing hazard. Preprints, 8th Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Dallas TX, 10-15 Jan., 38-42. Also, NASA TM 2000 210058.

Bernstein, B.C., T.A. Omeron, M.K. Politovich, and F. McDonough 1998: Surface weather features associated with freezing precipitation and severe in-flight aircraft icing. Atmos. Research, 46, 57-73.

Bernstein, B.C., T.A. Omeron, F. McDonough and M.K. Politovich, 1997:  The relationship between aircraft icing and synoptic-scale weather conditions..  Weather and Forecasting. 12, December, 742-762.

Bernstein, B.C., 1996:  A new technique for identifying locations where supercooled large droplets are likely to exist:  the Stovepipe Algorithm.  Preprints, Fifteenth Conference on Weather Analysis and Forecasting, Norfolk, VA, 9-13 August, American Meteorological Society (Boston), 566-568.

Bernstein, B.C., M.K. Politovich and T.A. Omeron, 1995: Mesoscale aspects of a freezing drizzle, snowfall and aircraft icing event during WISP91.  Preprints, 14th Conference on Weather Analysis and Forecasting, Dallas, 15-20 January.   Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 364--369.

Bernstein, B.C. and M.K. Politovich, 1993: The production of supercooled liquid water by a secondary cold front.  Preprints, 5th Int'l Conf. On Aviation Wea. Systems, Vienna, Va., 2-6 August.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 422--426.

Bernstein, B.C., I. Baker, D. Wesley, J. Smart, L. Wharton and J. Wirshborn, 1992:  The utility of a high resolution volunteer snow observer network.   Proceedings, 11th Int'l Conf. on Clouds and Precipitation, Montreal, 17-22 August.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston,  991--994.

Brown, B.G, J. L. Mahoney and T. L. Fowler:  Verification of the In-flight icing diagnostic algorithm (IIDA). Preprints, 9th AMS Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology,   13-16 May, Portland, OR.,  311 – 314.

Brown, B.G., 2000:  Evaluation of probabilistic in-flight icing forecasts. 15th Conference on Probability and Statistics in the Atmospheric Sciences, 8-11 May, Asheville.

Brown, B.G. and G.S. Young, 2000: Verification of icing and turbulence forecasts: Why some verification statistics can’t be computed using PIREPs. Preprints, 9th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, 11-15 Sept., Orlando, 393 – 398.

Brown, B.G., B.C. Bernstein, F. McDonough and T.A.O. Bernstein, 1999: Probability forecasts of in-flight icing conditions.   Proceedings, 8th Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Dallas, 10-15 January. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston.

Brown, B.G., T.L. Kane, R. Bullock and M.K. Politovich, 1999: Evidence of improvements in the quality of in-flight icing algorithms. Proceedings, 8th Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Dallas, 10-15 January. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 48-52.

Brown, B.G., 1996:  Verification of inflight icing forecasts: methods and issues.  Proceedings, FAA int. Conf. on Aircraft Inflight Icing, Report No. DOT/FAA/AR-96/81, II, 319-330.

Brown, B.G., and A.H. Murphy, 1996: Verification of aircraft icing forecasts: The use of standard measures and meteorological covariates.  Preprints, 13th Conference on Probability and Statistics in the Atmospheric Sciences, 21-23 February, San Francisco, CA, American Meteorological Society .

Brown, B.G., G. Thompson, R.T. Bruintjes, R. Bullock, and T. Kane, 1996: Intercomparison of in-flight icing algorithms. Part II:  Statistical verification results.  Weather and Forecasting. 12, 890-915.

Brown, B.G., 1995: Statistical climatology of icing events and forecasts over the continental United States.   Preprints, Sixth International Meeting on Statistical Climatology, Galway, Ireland, 19-23 June, 69-72.

Brown, B.G., R. Bullock, G. Thompson and R.T. Bruintjes, 1995: WISP94 Real-Time Icing Prediction and Evaluation Program (WRIPEP):  Statistical issues and forecast verification results.   Preprints, 6th Conference on Aviation Weather Systems, Dallas, 15-20 January.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 207--212.

Brown, B.G., T.L. Fowler, B.C. Bernstein and G.S. Forbes, 1993:  Use of pilot reports for verification of aircraft using diagnoses and forecasts.   Preprints, 5th Int'l  Conf. on Aviation Wea. Systems, Vienna, Va., 2-6 August.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 277--281.

Brown, J.M., T.G. Smirnova, S.G. Benjamin, R. Rasmussen, G. Thompson and K. Manning, 2000: Use of a mixed-phase microphysics scheme in the operational rapid update cycle (RUC). Preprints, 9th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, 11-15 Sept., Orlando, 557 – 562.

Bruintjes, R.T., B. Barbaris and E.A. Betterton, 1995:  Ice crystal habits and chemistry in winter storms.   Preprints, Conf. on Cloud Physics, Dallas, 15-20 January.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 145--146.

Bruintjes, R.T. and G. Thompson, 1995: A case study of a moderate to severe icing event due to freezing drizzle during the WISP 1994 Field Program.  Preprints, 14th Conference on Weather Analysis and Forecasting, Dallas, 15-20 January.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 1--6.

Chapman, M., C. Wolff, R. Bateman, and B.C. Bernstein, 2004:  An Evaluation of high altitude Current Icing Potential. Paper 8.3, 11th Conf. on Aiviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Hyannis, 4-8 Oct. Available on cd.

Chapman, M. and and B. Bernstein, 2002:  Analysis of problematic IIDA icing diagnoses in the Pacific Northwest. Preprints, 9th AMS Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology,   13-16 May, Portland, OR.,  315 –318.

Cole, J. and W. Sand, 1991:  Statistical study of aircraft icing accidents. Paper AIAA 91-0558, 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, 7-10 Jan.  Amer. Inst. of Aero. & Astro., Washington, D.C.

Cortinas, J.V., Jr., B.C. Bernstein, C.C. Robbins and J.W. Strapp, 2003: An analysis of freezing rain, freezing drizzle and ice pellets across the United States and Canada: 1976-1990.  Wea. Forecasting, 19, 377-390.

Cortinas, J.V., C.C. Robbins, B.C. Bernstein and J.W. Strapp, 2000: A climatography of freezing rain, freezing drizzle, and ice pellets across North America. Preprints, 9th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, 11-15 Sept., Orlando, 292 - 298.

Deeter, M.N. and J. Vivekanandan, 2005:  AMSU-B observations of mixed-phase clouds over land. J. Appl. Meteor., 44, 72-85.

Ellis, S.M., J. Vivekanandan, R.J. Keeler, E. Brandes, and J. L. Stith, 2000:  Aircraft icing detection using S-polarization radar measurements. Preprints, 9th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, 11-15 Sept., Orlando, 245 – 250.

Forbes, G.S., Y. Hu, B.G. Brown, B.C. Bernstein and M.K. Politovich, 1993: Examination of conditions in the proximity of pilot reports of aircraft icing during STORM-FEST.   Preprints, 5th Int'l Conf. On Aviation Wea. Systems, Vienna, Va., 2-6 August.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 282--286.

Fowler, T.L., M. Chapman, B.G. Brown and J. Luppens Mahoney, 2004: Performance evaluation of the CIP severity index. Paper 9.3, 11th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Hyannis, 4-8 Oct. Available on cd.

Fowler, T.L,  M. Crandell  and B. G. Brown, 2002:  An inferred icing climatology – Part III: Icing AIRMETS and IIDA. Preprints, 9th AMS Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology,   13-16 May, Portland, OR.,  J25 – J28.

Haggerty, J., J. Vivekanandan, and D. Serke, 2004:Evaluation of satellite and radar cloud retrieval methods during IMPROVE-2 icing events. Paper 8.9, 11th Conf. on Aiviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Hyannis, 4-8 Oct. Available on cd.

Hill, G.E., 1995:  Calibration of the vibrating wire device in a wind tunnel at warm supercooled cloud temperatures. Contract Subaward No. UCAR S95-44753, Atek Data Corporation, Boulder, Colorado, 18 pp.

Holland, L.D  and M.K. Politovich, 1999:  An inferred winter cloud climatology. Proceedings, 8th Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Dallas, 10-15 January. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 429-432.

Ikeda K., R.M. Rasmussen and E.A. Brandes, 2005:  Freezing drizzle detection with WSR-88D radars. Paper P11R.1, Proceedings, 32nd Conf. on Radar Meteorology, October. Albuquerque, NM.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston.

Kessinger, C.J. and W.C. Lee, 1991: Evaluation of real-time dual-Doppler analysis for use during Field Operations.   Preprints, 25th Int'l Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Paris, 24-28 June.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 756--759.

Kane, T.L., B.G. Brown and B.C. Bernstein, 2000: Regional icing algorithm performance analysis. Preprints, 9th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, 11-15 Sept., Orlando, 270 – 273.

Kane, T., B.G. Brown and R.T. Bruintjes, 1998:  Characteristics of pilot reports of icing.  Preprints, 14th Conference on Probability and Statistics in Atmospheric Sciences.  11-16 January, Phoenix, American Meteorological Society, Boston, 90-95.

Khodadoust, A., D. Miller, M. Politovich and W. Vaughan, 2001:  “Atmospheric Environment”. Aerospace America, December 2001, p. 17.

Li, L., J. Vivekanandan, C.H. Chan and L. Tsang, 1995:  Microwave radiometer technique to retrieve vapor, liquid and ice, Part I:  Development of a neural  network-based inversion method. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 35, No. 2, March, p 237-247.

Marwitz, J.D., M.K. Politovich, B.C. Bernstein, F.M. Ralph, P.J. Neiman, R. Ashenden and J.F. Bresch, 1995:  Meteorological conditions associated with the ATR72 aircraft accident near Roselawn, Indiana, on 31 October 1994. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc, 78, 41-52.

McDonough, F. and Ben C. Bernstein, 2004:  A case study of a Great Lakes supercooled large droplet (SLD) icing cloud.  Paper P6.15, 11th Conf. on Aiviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Hyannis, 4-8 Oct. Available on cd.

McDonough, F. and B.C. Bernstein, 1999: Combining satellite, radar and surface observations with model data to create a better aircraft icing diagnosis. Proceedings, 8th Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Dallas, 10-15 January. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 467-471.

Miller, D. , T. Ratvasky, B. Bernstein, F. McDonough and J.W. Strapp, 1998:  NASA/FAA/NCAR Supercooled large droplet icing flight research:  Summary of Winter 96-97 flight operations. Paper AIAA-98-0577, 36th Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, 12-15 January, Reno. 20 pp.

Pobanz, B.M., J.D. Marwitz and M.K. Politovich, 1994:  Conditions associated with large-drop regions.   J. Atmos. Meteor.,  33, 1366--1372.

Politovich, M.K., F. McDonough and Ben C. Bernstein, 2004: The CIP inflight icing severity algorithm. Paper P6.3, 11th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Hyannis, 4-8 Oct. Available on cd.

b Predicting inflight aircraft icing intensity. J. Aircraft, 40, No. 4 (July), 639-644.

Politovich, M.K., G. Zhang, J. Vivekanandan and J.K. Williams, 2003: Characteristics of clouds containing SLD relevant to remote icing detection. AIAA Paper 2003-0562, AIAA 41st Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, Reno.  Jan. 6-9, 11 pp.

Politovich, M.K., B.C. Bernstein and F. McDonough, 2002: Issues in forecasting icing severity. Preprints, 9th AMS Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology,   13-16 May, Portland, OR., 85 – 88.

Politovich, M.K. B.C. Bernstein, J. Hopewell, T. Lindholm, C. Knable, L. Gauerke, D. Hazan and B. Martner, 2002: An Unusual Icing Case: 20 March 2000, Denver, Colorado. Preprints, 9th AMS Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology,   13-16 May, Portland, OR.,  37 – 40.

Politovich, M.K. and T.A.O. Bernstein, 2002: Aircraft icing conditions in northeast Colorado. J. Appl. Meteor., 41, 118 – 132.

Politovich, M.K., 2000:  Predicting glaze or rime ice growth on airfoils. J. Aircraft, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp 117-121.

Politovich, M.K. and B.G. Brown, 2000: Good News From the FAA's InFlight Icing Product Development Team. Preprints, 9th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, 11-15 Sept., Orlando, 227-232.

Politovich, M.K. and J.T. Riley, 2000: Mixed-phase Inflight Icing Conditions. Preprints, 9th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, 11-15 Sept., Orlando, 274-279.

Politovich, M.K., 1999:  How can we use and depict variability of clouds in icing forecasts? Proceedings, 8th Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Dallas, 10-15 January. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 443-446.

Politovich, M.K., 1996:  Response of a research aircraft to icing and evaluation of severity indices. J. Aircraft, 33(2), pp. 291 – 297.

Politovich, M.K., B.G. Brown, G. Thompson, R. Bruintjes and B. C. Bernstein, 1996:  Toward improved aviation forecasts for icing. Paper AIAA 96-0137, 34th Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, 15-18 January.  Amer. Inst. of Aero. &  Astro., Washington, D.C.

Politovich, M.K., B.C. Bernstein, F.M. Ralph, P.J. Neiman, J.D. Marwitz and R. Ashenden, 1995:  Meteorological conditions associated with the ATR-72 aircraft accident near Roselawn, Indiana on 31 October 1994.   Preprints, International Icing Symposium '95, Montreal, 18-21 September, 235--243.

Politovich, M.K. and F. Celik, 1995:  Large droplet formation in stratiform clouds sampled during WISP94.   Preprints, Conference on Cloud Physics, Dallas, 15-20 January.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 285.

Politovich, M.K., B.B. Stankov and B.E. Martner, 1995:  Determination of liquid water altitudes using combined remote sensors.   J. Appl. Meteor.,  34, 2060--2075.

Politovich, M.K. and B.C. Bernstein, 1995:  Production and depletion of supercooled liquid water in a Colorado winter storm.     J. Appl. Meteor.,  34, 2641--2658.

Politovich, M.K., 1993:  Aircraft icing:  meteorological effects on aircraft performance.   Preprints, 5th Int'l Conf. on Aviation Weather Systems, Vienna, Va., 2-6 August.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 435--439.

Politovich, M.K., R.M. Rasmussen, P.L. Haagenson, W.R. Sand, J.A. McGinley, E.R. Westwater, J.R. Smart and S.C. Albers, 1993:  The FAA aircraft icing forecasting program:  Validation of aircraft icing forecasts in the Denver area. Paper AIAA 93-0393, 31st Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit,  Reno, 11-14 January. Amer. Inst. for Aeronautics & Astronomics, Washington, D.C.

Politovich, M.K., B.B. Stankov and B.E. Martner, 1992:  Use of combined remote sensors for determination of aircraft icing altitudes.   Preprints, 11th Int'l Conf. on Clouds and Precip.,  Montreal, 17-22 August.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 979--982.

Politovich, M.K., 1991:  Aircraft icing as an applied winter storms problem.  Preprints, First Int'l Winter Storms Symposium, New Orleans, 14-18 Jan, pp. 235--240.

Politovich, M.K. and R. Olson, 1991:  An evaluation of aircraft icing forecasts for the continental United States.   Preprints, 4th Int'l Conf. on Aviation Weather Systems, Paris, 24-26 June.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 234--238.

Politovich, M.K. and W.R. Sand, 1991:  A proposed icing severity index based upon meteorology.   Preprints, 4th Int'l Conf. on Aviation Weather Systems, Paris, 24-26 June. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 157--162.

Rasmussen, R. and I. Geresdi, 2005: Freezing drizzle formation in stably stratified layer clouds. Part II: The role of giant nuclei and aerosol particle size distribution and solubility. J. Atmos. Sci., 62, 2037–2057.

Rasmussen, R.M., K. Ikeda, G. Thompson, and I. Geresdi, 2004:  Freezing drizzle formation over the Oregon Cascades during IMPROVE II. Paper 6.9, 11th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Hyannis, 4-8 Oct. Available on cd.

Rasmussen, R.M., I. Geresdi, E. Karplus, K. Manning and G. Thompson, 2000: Freezing Drizzle and Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) Formation in Stably Stratified Clouds: Results from Detailed Microphysical Simulations and Implications for Aircraft Icing. Preprints, 9th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, 11-15 Sept., Orlando, 233-238.

Rasmussen, R.M., B.C. Bernstein, M. Murakami, G. Stossmeister, J. Reisner and B. Stankov, 1995:  The 1990 Valentine's Day arctic outbreak Part I:  Mesoscale structure and evolution of a Colorado Front Range shallow upslope cloud.   J. Appl. Meteor., 34,  1481-1511.

Rasmussen, R.M., J. Cole and K. Knight, 1995:  Meteorological conditions associated with ground de-icing accidents and the effects of wind on snowfall accumulation on aircraft.  Paper AIAA 95-0660, 33rd Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, Reno, 9-12 January.  Amer. Inst. of Aero. &  Astro., Washington, D.C.

Rasmussen, R.M. and W.A. Cooper, 1995:  Ice initiation in WISP shallow  upslope clouds.   Preprints, Conf. on Cloud Physics, Dallas, 15-20 January.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 134--138.

Rasmussen, R.M., N.A. Crook and C. Kessinger, 1993:  Snowband formation and evolution during the 15 November aircraft accident at Denver airport.  Wea. and Forecasting8, 453--480.

Rasmussen, R., M. Politovich, J. Marwitz, W. Sand, J. McGinley, J. Smart, R. Pielke, S. Rutledge, D. Wesley, G. Stossmeister, B. Bernstein, K. Elmore, N. Powell, E. Westwater, B.B. Stankov and D. Burrows, 1992:  Winter Icing and Storms Project (WISP).   Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,  73, 951--974.

Rasmussen, R., A. Crook, G. Stossmeister, J. Brown, E. Szoke, and J.   Wilczak, 1992:  Upstream conditions associated with the Denver Cyclone.   Preprints, 5th Conf. on Mesoscale Processes, Atlanta, 5-10 Jan. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 44--49.

Rasmussen, R.M., M. Murakami, G. Stossmeister, B. Bernstein and B. Stankov, 1992:  Supercooled liquid water in Colorado front range winter storms:  Microphysical study of the 1990 Valentines Day storm.   Proceedings, 11th Int'l Conf. on Clouds and Precipitation, Montreal, 17-21 August.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 224--227.

Rasmussen, R., M. Politovich, J. Marwitz, W. Sand, J. McGinley, J. Smart, R. Pielke, S. Rutledge, D. Wesley, G. Stossmeister, B. Bernstein, K. Elmore, N. Powell, E. Westwater, B.B. Stankov and D. Burrows, 1992:  Winter Icing and Storms Project (WISP).   Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.,  73, 951--974.

Rasmussen, R.M., M. Murakami, G. Stossmeister and B.C. Bernstein, 1991: Supercooled liquid water in Colorado front range winter storms:  Case study of the 1990 Valentine"s Day storm.    Preprints, 4th Int'l Conf. on Aviation Weather Systems, Paris, 24-26 June.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 163--166.

Rasmussen, R.M., N.A. Crook and C. J. Kessinger, 1990:  Precipitation bands in Colorado front range snowstorms: 15 November 1987 case study.   Preprints, 4th Conf. On Mesoscale Processes, Boulder, Co., 25-29 June. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 63--64.

Rasmussen, R.M., N.A. Crook and C. J. Kessinger, 1990:  Precipitation development in Colorado front range snowstorms:  15 November case study.  Preprints,  Conf. on Cloud Physics, San Francisco, 23-27 July. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 758--764.

Reinking, R.F., B.W. Orr, B.B. Stankov and C.A. Davis, 1993:  NOAA Ka-band cloud-sensing radar measurements from WISPIT.  Preprints, 5th Int'l Conf. on Aviation Wea. Systems, Vienna, Va., 2-6 August.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 130--134.

Reisner, J., R.M. Rasmussen, and R.T. Bruintjes, 1998: Explicit forecasting of supercooled liquid water in winter storms using the MM5 mesoscale model. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 142, 1071-1107.

Ryerson, C., M.K. Politovich, G.G. Koenig and A. Reehorst, 2002:  Mt. Washington Icing Sensors Project (MWISP) Results. Preprints, 9th AMS Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology,   13-16 May, Portland, OR., 228 – 231.

Ryerson, C., M.K. Politovich, K.L. Rancourt, G.G. Koenig, R.F. Reinking, and D.R. Miller, 2000:  Overview of Mt. Washington icing sensors project. Paper AIAA-2000-0488, 38th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, 10-13 January, Reno.

Sand, W.R and M.K. Politovich, 1991: Program to improve aircraft icing forecasts: A status report.  Paper AIAA 91-0557, 29th Aerospace Sciences Meeting,  Reno, 24-28 Jan. Amer. Inst. of Aero. & Astro., Washington, D.C.

Sand, W.R., M.K. Politovich and R.M. Rasmussen, 1990: A program to improve aircraft icing forecasts.  Paper AIAA 90-0196, 28th Aerospace Sciences Meeting, Reno, 8-11 Jan. Amer. Inst. of Aero. & Astro., Washington, D.C.

Sand, W.R., M.K. Politovich, J. McGinley, and L. Osborne, 1989:  A cooperative study of winter icing conditions in the Denver area. Preprints,  3rd Intl. Conf. On the Aviation Weather System, Anaheim, 29 Jan.-3 Feb. 169 -- 171.

Schultz, P. and M.K. Politovich, 1991:  Automated guidance for forecasting conditions conducive to aircraft icing.   Preprints, Seventh Int'l Conf. on Interactive Information and Processing Systems for Meteorology, Hydrology and Oceanography, New Orleans, 14-18 Jan.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 492--496.

Schultz, P. and M.K. Politovich, 1992:  Toward the improvement of aircraft icing forecasts for the continental United States.   Wea. And Forecasting7, 491—500.

Serke, D.J., G. Zhang, J. Vivekanandan, T. Schneider, P. Minnis and M. Poellot, 2005: Verification of S-Polka KA Band radar/radiometer LWC and RES retrievals with GRIDS retrievals and aircraft measurements and comparison to GOES icing products for the WISP04 10-11 March event. Paper P11R.3, Radar Conf.

Serke, D.J., G. Zhang, J. Vivekanandan, T. Schneider, P. Minnis and M. Poellot,             2005: Verification of S-polka KA band radar/radiometer LWC and res retrievals             with grids retrievals and aircraft measurements and comparison to GOES             icing products for the WISP94 10-11 March event. Proceedings, 32nd Conf. on Radar Meteorology, October. Albuquerque, NM.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston.

Sims, D., C. Fidalgo, C. Turner, M. Politovich and D. Johnson, 1999:  Integrated icing diagnostic algorithm assessment at the Aviation Weather Center. Proceedings, 8th Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Dallas, 10-15 January. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston,  53-57.

Stankov, B.B., J.A. Schroeder, E.R. Westwater and R.M. Rasmussen, 1991:  Liquid water profiling using remote sensor observations.   Preprints, 4th Int'l Conf. on Aviation Weather Systems, Paris, 24-28 June.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 239—246

Stankov, B.B., B.E. Martner and M.K. Politovich, 1995:  Moisture profiling of the cloudy winter atmosphere using combined remote sensors.  J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech.,  12, 488--510.

Stankov, B.B., B. Martner, J. Schroeder, E. Westwater, M.K. Politovich and J. Cole, 1993:  Liquid water and water vapor profiling in multilayered clouds using combined remote sensors.  Paper AIAA 93-0395, 31st Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, Reno, 11-14 January.

Stossmeister, G.J. and R.M. Rasmussen, 1992:  Precipitation band structure in the front range blizzard of March 5-7, 1990:   Proceedings, 11th Int'l Conf. on Clouds and Precipitation, Montreal, 17-21 August. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 632--635.

Szoke, E.J. and R.M. Rasmussen, 1995:  Experimental snowfall nowcasting to support ground de-icing operations.   Preprints, Conf. on Cloud Physics, Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 577--582.

Thompson, G., R. Rasmussen and B. Bernstein, 2002:  Detailed comparisons of aircraft icing environments. Preprints, 9th AMS Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology,   13-16 May, Portland, OR.,  96 – 99.

Thompson, G. and B.C. Bernstein, 2000: Application of a mixed-phase microphysics scheme to predict aircraft icing. Preprints, 9th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, 11-15 Sept., Orlando, 251 – 255.

Thompson, G., R.T. Bruintjes, B.G. Brown, and F. Hage, 1997:  Intercomparison of in-flight icing algorithms. Part I: WISP94 Real-time Icing Prediction and Evaluation Program. Weather and Forecasting. 12, 878-889.

Thompson, G., R. Bullock and T.F. Lee, 1997: Using satellite data to reduce spatial extent of diagnosed icing. Weather and Forecasting, 12, 1, March 1997, 185-190.

Thompson, G., R.T. Bruintjes and B.G. Brown, 1995:  A comprehensive icing prediction and evaluation program.   Preprints, 6th Conf. On Aviation Weather Systems, Dallas, 15-20 January.  Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 243--248.

Thompson, G., T.F. Lee and R. Bruintjes, 1995:  Comparison of SSM/I and model estimates of integrated cloud water during WISP94.   Preprints, 14th Conference on Weather Analysis and Forecasting, Dallas, 15-20 January. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 395--400.

Tilley, J.S., D. Wilkinson and M.K. Politovich, 1999: Application of mesoscale model data to algorithms for inflight icing over the Alaska region. Proceedings, 8th Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Dallas, 10-15 January. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 452-456.

Vivekanandan, J and M. Deeter: Remote Estimation of Cloud Liquid  and  Droplet Size from Radar and Satellite Measurements, European Geophysical Union, Vienna, Austria, April 2006.

Vivekanandan, J. and K.E. Rangarajan, 2002:  Sensitivity of ground-based microwave radiometer observations to atmospheric temperature profile. Preprints, 9th AMS Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology,   13-16 May, Portland, OR., 241-244.

Vivekanandan, J., G. Zhang, and M.K. Politovich, 2001: An assessment of droplet size and liquid water content derived using dual-wavelength radar measurements for aircraft icing detection., J. Atmos. Ocean. Tech., Nov., 18, 1787 -- 1798.

Vivekanandan, J., G. Zhang and M.K. Politovich, 2000: Multi-frequency Radar Measurements of Liquid Water Content and Droplet Size. Preprints, 9th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, 11-15 Sept., Orlando, 557 – 562.

Vivekanandan, J. B. Martner, M.K. Politovich and G. Zhang, 1999: Retrieval of atmospheric liquid and ice characteristics using dual-wavelength radar observations.  IEEE Trans. On Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 37, No. 5, September 1999, 2325-2334.

Vivekanandan, J., G. Zhang and M.K. Politovich, 1999: Estimation of droplet size and liquid water content using dual-frequency radar measurements for aircraft icing detection.  Preprints, 29th International Conference on Radar Meteorology, Montreal, 12-16 July. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, pp. 872-874.

Vivekanandan, J., S.M. Ellis, R. Oye, D. S. Zrnic, A. V. Ryzhkov and J. Straka, 1999:   Cloud Microphysics Retrieval Using S-band Dual-Polarization Radar  Measurements.   Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 80, 381-388.

Vivekanandan, J., B. Martner, and M.K. Politovich, 1998: Aircraft icing detection using dual-wavelength and polarization radar observations. Presented at IGARSS’98, Seattle, USA.

Vivekanandan, J. and M.K. Politovich, 1999:  Scattering effects on microwave passive remote sensing of cloud parameters. Proceedings, 8th Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Dallas, 10-15 January. Amer. Meteor. Soc., Boston, 497-501.

Vivekanandan, J., L. Li, L. Tsang and C. Chan, 1995:  Microwave radiometer retrieval of vapor, liquid and ice using a three-channel radiometer, Part II: Joint studies of radiometer and radar in winter clouds. IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Vol. 35, No.2, March 1997, pp 237-247.

Wesley, D.A. and R.A. Pielke, 1992:  Synoptic conditions and other features associated with a common terrain-generated convergence zone during the 1991 Winter Icing and Storms Project (WISP).  Presented.  Joint spring meeting of Canadian and American geophysical unions, Montreal, 12-16 May, p. 74.

Wesley, D.A., R.M. Rasmussen and B.C. Bernstein, 1995:  Snowfall associated with a terrain-generated convergence zone during the Winter Icing and Storms Project. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, No. 10 (October), 2957-2977.

Williams,  J., G. Zhang, and J. Vivekanandan, 2002: Evaluation of a dual-wavelength-based icing detection technique using X-, Ka-, and W-band radar and microwave radiometer observations. Preprints, 9th AMS Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology,   13-16 May, Portland, OR., 224-227.

Wolff, C. A. and J. A. Haggerty, 2006: Point comparisons of research aircraft data to GOES-derived cloud products.  Preprints: 12th Conf. on Aviation, Range, and Aerospace Meteorology.  Atlanta, 29 January - 2 February.

Wolff, C. A., B. C. Bernstein, and F. McDonough, 2005: Nowcasting aircraft icing conditions using GOES-derived cloud products.  WWRP Symposium on Nowcasting and Very Short Range Forecasting, Toulouse, France, 5-9 September.

Wolff, C.A. and B.C. Bernstein, 2004: Scales of aircraft icing: a comparison of icing PIREPs to liquid water measurements from research aircraft. Paper 8.4, 11th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Hyannis, 4-8 Oct. Available on cd.   

Young, G.S.,  B. Brown and F. McDonough:  An inferred icing climatology – Part I:  Estimation from pilot reports and surface conditions. Preprints, 9th AMS Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology,   13-16 May, Portland, OR., J17 – J20.

Young, G.S., B.G. Brown and J.A. Hoeting, 2000:  Applying the autologistic function with covariates to estimate an icing field. Preprints, 15th Conference on Probability and Statistics in the Atmospheric Sciences, 8-11 May, Asheville.

Zhang, G., J. Vivekanandan and M.K. Politovich, 2004:  Radar/radiometer combination to retrieve cloud characteristics for icing detection. Paper P6.6, 11th Conf. on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology, Hyannis, 4-8 Oct. Available on cd.

Zhang, G., Zhang, G. and J. Vivekanandan, 2002: Effects of scattering due to ice particles on measurement of down-welling radiation observation of K and V-band Radiometers. Preprints, 9th AMS Conference on Aviation, Range and Aerospace Meteorology,   13-16 May, Portland, OR., 257-260.

 

Product Development Team

Marcia Politovich, NCAR
Barbara Brown, NCAR
Ben Bernstein, NCAR
Jennifer Mahoney, NOAA FSL
Marc Singer, NWS AWC
Roy Rasmussen, NCAR
Chuck Ryerson, CRREL
Greg Thompson, NCAR
J. Vivekanandan, NCAR

Partner Airlines

Air Wisconsin
Sky West
Comair
PenAir

Partner Laboratories

NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory
Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
NASA Glenn Research Center
Colorado State University
Aviation Weather Center
Alaska Aviation Weather Unit

Project Lead:
Marcia Politovich
Phone: (303) 497-8449
Fax: (303) 497-8401

Web Developer:
Lara Ziady

Send Correspondence to:
P.O. Box 3000
Boulder, CO 80307-3000

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